Political organisation and geography

Political organization


Jakaya Kikwete Actuel président de Tanzanie


Political organization

Président Tanzania

Jakaya Kikwete current President of Tanzania

Tanzania is a multi-party, presidential federal republic established on April 26, 1964 from the union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. Tanganyika had gained independence on December 9, 1961 and Zanzibar on December 10, 1963 after German colonization and British administered United Nations mandate. The name of Tanzania consists of Tanganyika's “Tan” and “Zan” for Zanzibar.

The President, who is also the Head of State, is elected by direct universal suffrage for a term of five years. He appoints the Prime Minister and a cabinet of ministers.

Parliament adopts laws pertaining to the Republic as a whole and to the 21 regions (including Mafia Island). The five regions that form the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar may adopt certain laws concerning local issues because they have their own Parliament. The Members of the Parliament are elected by direct universal suffrage for a term of five years.

The judiciary is significantly more complicated and consists of five levels combining local conventions, Islamic institutions and common law: courts, district courts, magistrates, High Court and Court of Appeal.



Tanzania is located in East Africa. Its natural boundaries are formed by the Indian Ocean to the east, Mount Kilimanjaro and Lake Victoria to the north, the Kagera River to the north-west, Lake Tanganyika to the west, Malawi in the south-west and the river Ruvuma in the south.

Map of Tanzania

Tanzania has land borders with Kenya and Uganda in the north, Rwanda and Burundi in the north-west, the Democratic Republic of Congo to the west, Zambia and Malawi (land and Lake Malawi) in the south-west and Mozambique in the south.

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